Timeline

Artists Team Up
for the Future

Visualizing the Invisible

Artists as Stakeholders

Herstory & Beyond

1980s : Artists Team Up for the Future

In the early 1980s, Sandor explored the relationship between photography, sculpture, and video art, while being inspired by the spiritual nature of Outsider Art.  Her unique vision to integrate more traditional with nascent art forms including computer graphics, resulted in a new medium she called PHSColograms–3D barrier-screen computer-generated photographs and sculptures.  In 1983, she formed the (art)n collective with SAIC peers, James Zanzi, Gina Uhlmann, Gary Justis and Randy Johnson, whose debut installation of PHSCologram ’83 made the cover of the New Art Examiner.  

1983
1983

Ellen Sandor forms (art)n and coins the term 'PHSCologram,' an acronym for Photography, Holography, Sculpture and Computer Graphics; PHSCologram ’83 debuts on Wacker Drive and makes the cover of the New Art Examiner with Michel Ségard’s article, Artists Team Up for the Future

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1984
1984

Ellen Sandor meets Tom DeFanti and Dan Sandin from the Electronic Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois at Chicago for a showing of PHSCologram '83 that inspires them to add interactivity to three-dimensional environments as the Virtual Reality CAVE

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1985
1985

The Computer Camera Technique was developed to feature computer-generated content in three dimensions, inputting frames captured with a video camera

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1986
1986

(art)n collaborates with Larry Smarr, Donna Cox, George Francis and Ray Idazek to create a PHSCologram of the Etruscan Venus, a four-dimensional model first created at NCSA

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1987
1987

The first computer generated three-dimensional image of the AIDS Virus is created, based on real scientific data published in Scientific American, and was included in 'PHSColograms' at Fermilab Gallery and featured on the cover of Computer Graphics and Applications

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1989
1989

The Stealth Negative Process was developed, creating a computer generated method for making PHSColograms entirely on the computer, awarded a US and International Patents and published in the SPIE Proceedings (art)n collaborates with scientists from NASA Ames Research Center and the Scripps Research Institute (art)n: Beautiful Stranger at Feature, Inc.

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PHSCologram ’83 attracted the attention of Dan Sandin, Tom DeFanti and Phil Morton, followed by Larry Smarr and Donna Cox.  New innovations emerged from their exploration of PHSColograms, and were produced through a collaborative methodology called Renaissance Teams, a term coined by Donna J. Cox, in which artists became producers and directors of these initiatives.

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1990s : visualizing the invisible

“Scientists are the Rockstars of the Future.” 

–Ellen Sandor

As more scientists began commissioning PHSColograms to show their research, Ellen Sandor was successful in having them shown as works of art by Hudson at Feature Inc. and other museum venues, including the ICI’s traveling exhibition, From Media to Metaphor: Art About AIDS, Art Futura ’91 and the Science in Depth Traveling show, sponsored by the ACM.  Collaborations with the late great Chicago Imagist, Ed Paschke, Miroslaw Rogala and Steven Spielberg’s Shoah Foundation began alongside important commissions for the Museum of Jewish Heritage, The Smithsonian Institution, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago and the National Institutes of Health.  

 

The potential of PHSColograms for medical applications was also explored with Picker International and 3M to create EpiView, a real-time app (before the term was invented) in which physicians could print PHSColograms as 3D X-Rays to prevent invasive procedures and was used in hospitals.  A similar app was created to print iGrams, real-time PHSColograms from EVL’s VR CAVE.  Commercial projects included pieces for Nintendo of America and other video game companies as well.  (art)n’s website was launched in 1993 while at IIT, and won many awards after moving to Northwestern University’s research park in ‘94 and later, above the School of the Art Institute’s Gallery 2 location in Greek Town.  

1990
1990

Science in Depth, sponsored by ACM SIGGRAPH travels to NASA AMes Research Center, Computer Museum and Museum of Science and Industry

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1991
1991

After it’s SIGGRAPH Art Show ’90 Dallas debut, (art)n’s The Politics of Pleasure/Robert Mapplethorpe/The Nineties traveled to Barcelona for Art Futura during the Persian Gulf War. Ramon Castan commissioned (art)n to create a series of 6 original pieces for the Spanish Pavilion at the World’s Fair in ’92, with Seville, Spain as its host. The Virtual Bust/Beauty Myth detail from the POP sculpture was part of the SIGGRAPH Traveling Show, and was later added to the Patric Prince Archive at the Vic

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1992
1992

Rotated Computer Interleaving was developed as an improvement to show a smoother three-dimensional view of an object and could also include animation, awarded a US and International Patents and published in Computers & Graphics Commissioned to create works for the Spanish Pavilion at the World's Fair in Seville, Spain

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1993
1993

(art)n's website is launched, offering viewers a future glimpse of some of the earliest virtual exhibitions and virtual galleries - combining art historical images with new media content First PHSCologram collaborations begin with Christopher Landreth for Franz K, who was nominated for Academy Awards best animation shorts. Rhona Hoffman Gallery shows a selection of (art)n’s works, including Franz K. and an homage to Sol Le Witt.

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1994
1994

The first CT Angiography of the human brain is created as a PHSCologram from real patient data supplied by Picker International that led to the development of the epiView(tm) process in 1996 for creating PHSColograms in hospitals as a surgical tool for physicians

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1995
1995

Collaborates with Steven Spielberg's Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation on a series of Auschwitz Barracks. Oskar Friedl Gallery curates one of the first exhibitions to include videogames with (art)n’s videogame PHSColograms juxtaposed with The Equation of Terror, which was reviewed in the New Art Examiner. The Equation was included in the MCA’s Art in Chicago 1945-1995 exhibition.

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1997
1997

Commissioned by A Living Memorial to the Holocaust - Museum of Jewish Heritage and Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History First collaborations with Ed Paschke, No Fumare por Favore and Primondo Smithsonian Installation

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1998
1998

US Art in Embassies Program shows 'No Fumare por Favore' in Bonn, Germany and the 'AIDS Virus, Third Edition' in Zimbabwe. CameraWorks commissions Pet Study I/Reconstructing Rodin for the Santa Barbara Museum of Art's, Out of Science: Imaging/Imaging Science, the first contemporary art exhibition of art and science works since the museum's collaboration in 1967 with John Szarkowski at MOMA. PET Study is cover of Hank Whittemore’s Your Future Self.

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1999
1999

Developed IGram process for creating PHSColograms within a Virtual Reality CAVE, published by IEEE Society (art)n collaborates with TJ McLeish on 'Townhouse Revisited' sponsored by the Graham Foundation, receiving an honorable mention

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2000s : ARTISTS AS STAKEHOLDERS

I

1983
1983

Ellen Sandor forms (art)n and coins the term 'PHSCologram,' an acronym for Photography, Holography, Sculpture and Computer Graphics; PHSCologram ’83 debuts on Wacker Drive and makes the cover of the New Art Examiner with Michel Ségard’s article, Artists Team Up for the Future

press to zoom
1984
1984

Ellen Sandor meets Tom DeFanti and Dan Sandin from the Electronic Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois at Chicago for a showing of PHSCologram '83 that inspires them to add interactivity to three-dimensional environments as the Virtual Reality CAVE

press to zoom
1985
1985

The Computer Camera Technique was developed to feature computer-generated content in three dimensions, inputting frames captured with a video camera

press to zoom
1986
1986

(art)n collaborates with Larry Smarr, Donna Cox, George Francis and Ray Idazek to create a PHSCologram of the Etruscan Venus, a four-dimensional model first created at NCSA

press to zoom
1987
1987

The first computer generated three-dimensional image of the AIDS Virus is created, based on real scientific data published in Scientific American, and was included in 'PHSColograms' at Fermilab Gallery and featured on the cover of Computer Graphics and Applications

press to zoom
1989
1989

The Stealth Negative Process was developed, creating a computer generated method for making PHSColograms entirely on the computer, awarded a US and International Patents and published in the SPIE Proceedings (art)n collaborates with scientists from NASA Ames Research Center and the Scripps Research Institute (art)n: Beautiful Stranger at Feature, Inc.

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2010s : herstory & beyond